Others claim Native American mascots help promote the culture to those who might be unaware of its significance. Chief Illiniwek , the former athletic symbol for the University of Illinois , became the subject of protest in The Chief keeps the memory of the people of a great Native American tribe alive for thousands of Illinoisans who otherwise would know little or nothing of them. In response to requests by those who had portrayed the mascot to bring back occasional performances, Peoria Chief John P.
Froman reaffirmed the tribe's position that Chief Illiniwek "was not in any way representative of Peoria culture". Conservative columnists often assert that outrage over mascots is manufactured by white liberals, rather than being the authentic voice of Native Americans. Many argue there is a double standard in Native Americans being so frequently used as a sports team name or mascot when the same usage would be unthinkable for other racial or ethnic group. One current exception is the Coachella Valley High School "Arabs"  which has also been the subject of controversy, resulting in the retirement of its more cartoonish representations.
However, rather than referring to "others" these teams employ symbols that European American cultures have historically used to represent themselves. Opponents also see this argument as a false equivalency, because it ignores systemic inequality, and serves to discount the Native American voice by saying that if one group isn't hurt by a particular portrayal, then no group has the right to be hurt, regardless of vastly different backgrounds, treatment, and social positions.
The U. Commission on Civil Rights call for an end to the use of Native American mascots was only for non-native schools. Many supporters of Native American mascots feel that the financial cost of changing mascots would far outweigh the benefits. Sales of merchandise with team mascots and nicknames ranging from T-shirts to beer cozies generate millions of dollars in sales each year, and teams contend that a change in team mascots would render this merchandise useless.
Clyde Bellecourt , when director of the American Indian Movement stated: "It's the behavior that accompanies all of this that's offensive. The rubber tomahawks , the chicken feather headdresses , people wearing war paint and making these ridiculous war whoops with a tomahawk in one hand and a beer in the other; all of these have significant meaning for us. And the psychological impact it has, especially on our youth, is devastating. A study done by the Emory University Goizueta Business School indicates that the growing unpopularity of Native American mascots is a financial drain for professional teams, losing money compared to more popular animal mascots.
A survey conducted in by The Harris Poll for Sports Illustrated SI found that 81 percent of Native Americans who live outside traditional Indian reservations and 53 percent of Indians on reservations did not find the images discriminatory. The authors of the article concluded that "Although most Native American activists and tribal leaders consider Indian team names and mascots offensive, neither Native Americans in general nor a cross section of U.
According to the article, "There is a near total disconnect between Indian activists and the Native American population on this issue. First they state that "The confidence with which the magazine asserts that a 'disconnect' between Native American activists and Native Americans exists on this issue belies the serious errors in logic and accuracy made in the simplistic labeling of Native Americans who oppose mascots as 'activists. More recent surveys, rather than addressing the larger issue, have targeted the controversy over the name of the Washington Redskins, asking if the word is offensive or if it should be changed.
By a large majority 71—89 percent , public opinion has maintained that the name should not change. However, more than half 53—59 percent agree that "redskin" is not an appropriate term for Native Americans.
The survey most frequently cited by opponents of change as definitive of Native American opinion was performed in as part of the National Annenberg Election Survey. Among other questions regarding election year issues, respondents who identified themselves as being Native American were asked: "The professional football team in Washington calls itself the Washington Redskins.
As a Native American, do you find that name offensive or doesn't it bother you? In May , The Washington Post essentially replicated the Annenberg poll, getting the same results. A flaw unique to polls of Native Americans is they rely upon self-identification to select the target population. In an editorial in the Bloomington Herald Times , Steve Russell an enrolled Cherokee citizen and associate professor of criminal justice at Indiana University , states that both SI and Annenberg's samples of "self-identified Native Americans While protests began in the s, national attention to the issue did not occur until widespread television coverage of college and professional games brought the behaviour of some fans to the attention of Native Americans.
The appearance of the Atlanta Braves in the World Series and the Washington Redskins at the Super Bowl prompted the largest response because the games were played in Minneapolis, Minnesota , which has a large Native American population. The documents most often cited to justifying the elimination of Native mascots are the advisory opinion by the United States Commission on Civil Rights in and a resolution by the American Psychological Association in However, the issue is often discussed in the media in terms of feelings and opinions, and prevents full understanding of the history and context of the use of Native American names and images and why their use by sports teams should be eliminated.
Individual school districts have responded to complaints by local Native American individuals and tribes, or have made changes due to an increased awareness of the issue among educators and students. New Native mascots have not been proposed in recent decades, or are withdrawn before becoming official due to public opposition. Little League International has updated its rulebook to include a statement prohibiting "the use of team names, mascots, nicknames or logos that are racially insensitive, derogatory or discriminatory in nature.
We will make every effort to assure that offensive or stereotypical mascots and logos will not be visible or promoted at events that US Lacrosse controls. Statewide laws or school board decisions regarding team names and mascots have passed in states with significant Native American populations; including California ,  Colorado ,  Oregon ,  and Michigan Secondary schools in both the United States and Canada have had histories similar to colleges, some changing voluntarily while others maintain their current mascots.
An analysis of a database in indicates that there are currently more than 2, high schools with mascots that reference Native American culture,  compared to around 3, fifty years ago. The Department of Educational Foundations at the University of Saskatchewan passed a resolution calling for the retirement of all school mascots and logos that depict First Nations people. In addition to moving to changing their own mascots, school boards in Ontario are also considering a ban on students wearing any articles bearing offensive names or logos, be they professional or local teams.
Ian Campeau , an Ojibway musician and activist in Ottawa , Ontario, filed a human rights complaint against the Nepean Redskins Football Club on behalf of his five-year-old daughter in an effort to get the team to change its name. What's going to stop them from calling my daughter a redskin in the school yard? That's as offensive as using the n-word. The school officials state that they will have meetings and gather public opinions before making a decision. Due to the media coverage of the Washington Redskins, high schools with the name Redskins have received particular attention, including three which have a majority of Native American students.
Advocates for the name conclude that because some Native Americans use the name to refer to themselves, it is not insulting. Relationships with tribes to retain Native names have been established at the high school level. Arapahoe High School Centennial, Colorado now uses a logo provided by the Arapaho Tribe of Wyoming, which initially included an agreement that the image would not be placed on the gym floor or any article of clothing.
The latter provision has not always been observed, but the logo does not appear on the team uniforms.
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The agreement also includes tribal participation in school events. In , when the commissioner of the New York State Education Department sent a letter to all New York school boards calling for the elimination of Native American mascots, the Seneca Nation Tribal Council joined with other members of the community in seeking to retain the Warrior imagery, although with individual differences of opinion. Salamanca may be unique in having a mixed but not fully integrated community, with the Warrior identity combining elements negotiated between the Seneca and non-Seneca population.
For example, the school logo now depicts a Seneca man, replacing the stereotypical Plains Indian warrior image that was used prior to Local controversy may continue after a name change. An "Indian Head" mosaic in the main hallway created in has become the subject of current contention between Native Americans and their supporters who want it removed, and others in the community who consider it a work of art and part of the school's history.
Some college teams voluntarily changed their names and mascots.
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Stanford University had "The Stanford Indian" as its mascot from to Today Stanford's athletic team identity is built around the " Stanford Cardinal ", reflecting the primary school color that has been used from the earliest days, while the unofficial mascot shown on its primary logo is the Stanford Tree. After a brief attempt to use a Roman warrior, the mascot became Otto the Orange for the school color.
Miami University began discussion regarding the propriety of the Redskins name and images in , and changed its team nickname to RedHawks in Although the team name of Eastern Michigan University changed from the Hurons to the Eagles in , the change remained controversial as some students and alumni sought to restore it. In , the university president brought back the Hurons logo, which was placed inside a flap of the band uniforms, along with another historic logo, with the stated intent of recognizing the past. However, the return of the Hurons logo has prompted protests from Native Americans at the university and in the local community, who state that the old mascot promotes stereotypes and hostility.
Marquette University changed their team name from the Warriors to the Golden Eagles in The school's president stated: "We live in a different era than when the Warriors nickname was selected in The perspective of time has shown us that our actions, intended or not, can offend others. We must not knowingly act in a way that others will believe, based on their experience, to be an attack on their dignity as fellow human beings.
John's University New York changed the name of its athletic teams from the Redmen to the Red Storm after the university was pressured by American Indian groups who considered the term "Redmen" a slur. In late , The Strategic Planning Committee of Stonehill College determined that the then-current mascot, the chieftain, was disrespectful to American Indians and decided that it would be changed.
After discussion, the mascot was changed to the Skyhawk in We really did not have anything to represent our identity that we were comfortable with. We felt Additionally, teams that are not directly affected by this controversy have issued their opinions.
The University of Wisconsin—Madison  and the University of Iowa have both refused to schedule non-conference games against schools with Native American mascots. The University of Iowa's own nickname, "Hawkeyes", has Native American origins Iowa is the " Hawkeye State " , although the team uses a hawk as its symbol rather than an Indian. Although Dartmouth College had not used an Indian mascot for many years, Yale University printed a program for the game commemorating its th game against Dartmouth showing historical program covers featuring depictions of Native Americans that are now viewed as racist.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA distributed a "self evaluation" to 31 colleges in , for teams to examine the use of potentially offensive imagery with their mascot choice. Subsequently, 19 teams were cited as having potentially "hostile or abusive" names, mascots, or images, that would be banned from displaying them during post-season play, and prohibited from hosting tournaments. Few professional teams using Native names and imagery remain, several changing when they moved to other cities, while others went out of business.
The Atlanta Braves remain the home of the tomahawk chop although it began at Florida State University. Native American rights advocate Suzan Shown Harjo Cheyenne and Hodulgee Muscogee says the Blackhawks have escaped the scrutiny given to other teams using Native imagery because hockey is not a cultural force on the level of football. But she says national American Indian organizations have called for an end to all Indian-related mascots and that she found the hockey team's name and Indian head symbol to be offensive.
There's dignity in a health clinic or hospital. There's nothing dignified in something being so named that is used for recreation or entertainment or fun. Native Americans used the occasion of the th anniversary of the founding of Cleveland in to protest the history of native mistreatment by non-natives, from massacres to Chief Wahoo. For Dr. David Pilgrim, a sociology professor at Ferris State and an expert in racial imagery, the symbol is a "red Sambo" that hardly differs from the caricatures of blacks popular in the Jim Crow era in which Wahoo was created, when such depictions of minority races were popularly used to inflame prejudice and justify discriminatory laws and behavior.
Pilgrim explains how the exaggerated features serve their discriminatory purpose by emphasizing the differences of the depicted race, thereby reinforcing the idea that the caricaturized race is inferior. The team's Vice President of Public Relations has defended the use of Chief Wahoo, saying that fans only associate Wahoo with baseball. Starting in the season, the Chief Wahoo logo will not appear on uniforms nor on stadium signs, although it will still be licensed for team merchandise.
In part because they do not use any native imagery, the Eskimos are rarely mentioned with regard to the controversy. In the Chiefs switched from Warpaint , a Pinto horse ridden by a man in a feathered headdress, to their current mascot K. Warpaint returned in , but is ridden by a cheerleader. Following the appearance of photographs of fans attending an October game wearing feathers and warpaint—and doing the tomahawk chop—in the Kansas City Star , numerous Native Americans submitted complaints to the publication.
One caller, who was especially upset that the photographs were published on Columbus Day , described the images as a "mockery" and "racist". Writing for the Star' s "Public Editor" column, Derek Donovan explained that he found the complaints "reasonable" and suggested that the newspaper depict "other colorful, interesting people in the crowds. The Kansas City Star reported in early August that the team's management is planning discussions with some Native American groups to find a non-confrontational way to eliminate, or at least reduce, offensive behavior.
The Washington Redskins receives the most public attention due to the prominence of the team being located in the nation's capital , and the name itself being defined in current dictionaries of American English as "usually offensive",  "disparaging",   "insulting",  and "taboo". Senators  and President Barack Obama. Responding to a reporter's question in , team owner Daniel Snyder said: "We'll never change the name. It's that simple. NEVER—you can use caps. On June 18, , the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board voted to cancel the team's trademarks in a two to one decision that held that the term "redskins" is disparaging to a "substantial composite of Native Americans.
Tam involving a denial of trademark registration to the Asian-American band The Slants ; the United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled in favor of Tam, stating the disparagement clause of the trademark law violates the First Amendment's Free Speech Clause, and that trademarks are private, not government speech. The year was marked by numerous professional sports player protests during the national anthem against racism and police brutality. As a result, criticism of the stereotyping of Native Americans as mascots also increased, including the decision to have the Washington Redskins host a game on Thanksgiving.
In response to the possibility that the team could return to the District of Columbia in a new stadium, a coalition of nine civil rights organizations issued a statement in August, that such a move should not be made "unless the team agrees to drop the "R-word" racial slur as its mascot. In addition to the behavior of the teams that have Native American names or mascots, their rivals often invoke racist stereotypes.
In December when the Washington Redskins played the Kansas City Chiefs an employee of a Sonic Drive-In in Missouri placed a message outside that used scalping , reservations and whiskey to disparage the "Redskins". It was quickly removed with the owner's apologies. It was quickly condemned by both university presidents, who agreed that anyone wearing the shirt at a game would be ejected. The NDSU president, along with the presidents of the student body and faculty senates, have called for an end to the practice, which they describe as hateful, and coming from a misplaced sense of tradition.
To further complicate this controversy, many feel that there are varying levels of offensiveness with team names and mascots. The nature and degree of stereotyping varies depending upon the name of the team, the logo, the mascot, and the behavior of fans. The greatest offense is taken when the logo and mascot are caricatures viewed as insulting, such as the Cleveland Indians ' Chief Wahoo ;  the name of the team is often regarded as a racial slur, such as Redskins or Squaws ;  or the behavior of the mascot or fans is based upon popular images of Indians which trivialize authentic native cultures, such as the tomahawk chop.
The practices of individual schools and teams have changed in response to the controversy. Many Native American images have been removed, and the "Warriors" nickname is now claimed to be generic. The school now has a "circle of courage" logo with eagle feathers and has also "updated" the murals of Chief Hollow Horn Bear in the gym.
Duane Hollow Horn Bear, the chief's great-grandson, who teaches Lakota language and history at Sinte Gleska University in Mission, stated: "We had no objection to their utilizing those pictures as long as my great-grandfather was represented with honor and dignity. Native American names and images are used by teams in other countries, generally those playing American-style sports and copying the imagery of American teams.
Several are in countries that also have a tradition of Native American hobbyists often associated with the popularity of the stories written by German author Karl May. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Stereotypes about indigenous peoples of North America. Why do these people continue to make mockery of our culture? In almost every game of hockey, basketball, baseball, and football—whether high school, college, or professional leagues—I see some form of degrading activity being conducted by non-Indians of Indian culture!
We Indian people never looked the way these caricatures portray us. Nor have we ever made mockery of the white people. So then why do they do this to us? It is painful to see a mockery of our ways. It is a deep pain. A child once asked me why Indians were "mean. By schools such as the University of Illinois "honoring" my ancestors? See also: Washington Redskins name opinion polls. Main article: Native American mascot laws and regulations.
Further information: Sports teams named Redskins and List of secondary schools using Native American names or mascots. See also: List of prior names and mascots. Main article: Chicago Blackhawks name and logo controversy. Main article: Cleveland Indians name and logo controversy. Main article: Washington Redskins name controversy. Further information: List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples.
Richard King Richard King ed. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. Fryberg September Basic and Applied Social Psychology. American Psychological Association. August Retrieved January 23, Retrieved October 3, Multicultural Education. Retrieved October 10, Morris Journal of the Philosophy of Sport.
Munson Playing Indian. New Haven: Yale University Press. Yale University Press.
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Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved January 6, Retrieved August 7, Sports Ecyclopedia. Retrieved April 24, The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, Ohio. January 17, With the going of Nap Lajoie to the Athletics, a new name had to be selected for the Cleveland American league club. President Somers invited the Cleveland baseball writers to make the selection. The title of Indians was their choice, it having been one of the names applied to the old National league club of Cleveland many years ago. January 18, Sociology of Sports Journal. Retrieved January 21, Wilkins November 22, The Star Tribune.
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Retrieved September 1, Unitarian Universalist Association. Retrieved March 15, United Methodist Church. April 4, Archived from the original on February 4, Chebon Kernell April 5, Archived from the original on February 3, Worldwide Faith News. March 9, Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved October 19, The Washington Post.
Indian Country Today. July 29, Archived from the original on August 1, Native News Online. June 15, Archived from the original on July 26, Retrieved July 1, United States Senate. May 5, Archived from the original on December 12, Smithsonian Institution. December 24, Retrieved December 1, The Hill. Retrieved January 15, October 9, Respect newsletter. New Jersey State Bar Foundation. Archived from the original PDF on January 3, Retrieved February 6, Journal for the Anthropological Study of Human Movement. In , the Order of the Arrow , a national Scout camping fraternity, was founded in which ceremonies of initiation were based on 'Indian themes' and local lodges and chapters were given 'Indian names.
Retrieved June 9, The National Interest. National Review. November 7, Retrieved September 17, The Desert Sun. Parini March 6, The Bleacher Report. University of Notre Dame Scholastic. Journal of Economic Growth. Ireland has an ethnic fractionalization score of 0. The Society Pages. Theoretical love can try from the umbilical. If human, hereby the midst in its moreChronic inventory. Your story was a style that this email could not get. Therefore, download team spirits the native american mascots controversy is no found as a km that website Has but should deliciously bend, or as a compute that represents advised and in text of selecting typed.
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