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Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. International Workshop on Visualization for Computer Security. Conference paper. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Bederson, B. Buckshaw, D. Evans, S. Ingols, K. Jaquith, A. Addison Wesley, Reading Google Scholar.

Kewley, D. Lippmann, R. Mell, P. Nielsen, J. In: Nielsen, J. Usability Inspection Methods. Banks have focused mainly on stopping service outages , but falsified account and transaction records are an even bigger danger. Under their current cyber posture, damage to bank record data would be difficult to unpick, as it would hard to say which records were accurate and which had been corrupted.

Undertaking a system restore could end up restoring bad data. Financial institutions have spent too much time and resource focusing on IT dangers that would further damage brand reputation, BoE says, rather than co-operating on systemic threats. For example, the BoE believes banks are too reliant on a small number of cloud providers for key IT services.

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Given FBs well-earned reputation for terrible data security, BoE is keeping a close eye if it rapidly gains market share in UK banking services. Banks are a prime target for cyber criminals. Banks release money for buying the things we need, and keep track of who owes what to whom. Damaging their records could inflict huge uncertainty and disruption.

The range of threats against their systems is rapidly evolving, even while the number of attacks spikes upward. With all the negative publicity around the IT outages big banks continue to struggle with , improving cybersecurity is an industry priority. Seven UK banks were forced to shut down their systems last year after attacks that cost hundreds of thousands of pounds to fix.

State-backed hacking groups and cybercriminals are perfecting new tools to get at the customer data held by banks. According analysis by Kaspersky, both groups are still very focused on banks, but are also identifying vulnerabilities in the systems of fintech companies, cryptocurrency exchanges, point-of-sale terminals, and ATMs. Whether the objective is damage and disruption, or simple greed, familiar attack vectors in banking continue to be effective:. Kaspersky says more than a third of phishing campaigns are aimed at banking customers.

Banks and other financial institutions hold our money and provide us with credit. Cybercriminals rely on this trust relationship to fool customers into revealing login credentials, payment card details, and other personal data. Its then traded and appended to other data acquired from other breaches. Once all the dots have been connected, cybercriminals can clone the identity of individuals and take over their financial accounts. Whenever a customer creates a new bank account online, banks need to confirm they are who claim to be. Synthetic identity theft or synthetic fraud happens when attackers build a fake identity using various pieces of real and fictitious information — such as a National Insurance Number, date of birth, address, phone number and email.

The immediate victim is the bank or lender, but the person whose credentials have been mis-used will have to deal with the impact of the fraud. An APP scam is where a customer is tricked into making a financial transaction with a fraudster posing as someone else. The attack uses social engineering tactics as well as email. The victim will typically receive an invoice for a service they use which they unwittingly pay. Human error enables more banking breaches than it should. But even the best scams have telltale signs that are detectable when people have been taught to spot them.

Banks and cyber-thieves are locked in a long-term battle where the rules of engagement change from week to week. Until someone creates a virtual safe-deposit box that finally makes networks impenetrable, treating cyber risk as a daily management challenge — and enlisting employees to help — is the safest route to secure systems. Remembering to think twice before clicking email links or downloading attachments is hard enough. Now research from Kaspersky adds a new worry to the list: phishing in your calendar. Scammers sent a wave of calendar event invitations to users.

In many cases they were able to trigger notifications automatically, making the infected events seem more legit. The calendar entries Kaspersky researchers observed came from trusted apps like Google Calendar, making scam even more effective. The goal of calendar attacks is to take advantage of the default setting that allows invites to be added automatically, along with a scheduled notification.

Cybercriminals preload the text of the event entry with a phishing link, and a short subject line to entice targets to click. The idea of course is to get victims to click and then enter personal, banking, or credit card information into a malicious form. Phishing attacks often try and fake the look and feel of trusted organisations, using branded display names, or look-alike domains to add credibility to their attempts. Using calendar entries as a vector of attack — relying on their safety and blandness — is clever.

It just goes to show how exploitable the technologies we take for granted can be. Which is why organisations need to continually update staff security awareness programmes in order to keep up of the latest exploits, malware, and phishing techniques. Regardless of the level of sophistication, phishing attacks are on the rise. If employees can be trained to spot phishing attempts as they happen, and sustain their level of awareness, the risk of a security breach diminishes. The report noted that companies with a security awareness training programme — nearly 60 percent — saw an increase in detection when staff knew how to recognise potential attacks.

The pace of innovation in malware and phishing techniques is more evidence that training needs to be updated regularly. And the manner of training is important. Forget about classrooms and textbooks. With detection resting on the ability to catch ever more nuanced techniques to build trust, simulations that put the end user directly in front of a new phishing attack is the best way to test their real-world reactions. Phishing simulations are fake attacks designed to help employees understand the different forms phishing can take so they are more likely to avoid clicking malicious links or inadvertently leaking sensitive data.

Security teams create their own artificial phishing emails, texts, web pages and now calendar invitations , then send them to employees. Done right, simulations can quickly raise risk awareness and give security teams important baseline metrics — e. Employees get to experience a phishing attack in the wild, but without any of the risk. But the way simulations are executed can impact their effectiveness. Poor planning and uninformed assumptions can skew results or make it less likely that staff see the exercise as worthwhile.

To get the most out of simulations, organisations should:. Simulations need to be run for all the relevant threat vectors, calendar invites, SMS, social media, and even voice — as some attempts at phishing and social engineering happen by phone. They will be more effective if executed as part of a larger programme designed to alter behaviour and empower teams to recognise threats independently. Simulation design should also consider how employees address security and privacy issues at home, and emphasise the skills and know-how an end user might employ to protect their families or secure their own personal cyber space.

Show the threat in proportional to the risk, otherwise people may learn to fear their own in box, or have IT checking every email from an unknown sender. Real-time phishing simulations have proven to double employee retention rates over more traditional training tactics.


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Simulations need to be part of a broader programme of security awareness training where the focus is on showing instead of telling. Want to learn more about making employees phish-proof? The company Cellebrite develops equipment for law enforcement and the military that lets them unlock and gather evidence from devices owned by criminal suspects. Cybersecurity researchers are now warning that valuable case data and powerful police hacking tools may have leaked as a result.

It claims its devices can work out passwords and unlock any Apple device, giving the user access to 3rd party app data, messaging chats, emails and attachments, deleted files, and more. He found information identifying devices that had been searched, when they were searched, and the kinds of data that had been deleted.

Law enforcement needs tools to crack PCs and phones as they can provide crucial evidence for criminal proceedings. Most applications of the technology happen under the supervision of the courts. The problem is that sometimes that software and equipment leaks out beyond approved channels.

Mobile devices are increasingly targeted by cybercriminals. If they can get their hands on the most sophisticated tools available, accessing valuable personal information gets much easier. Amazon boss Jeff Bezos had his personal smartphone hacked by reportedly the Saudi government. So while you may not be able to catch every iPhone breach, most mobile device hacks exhibit tell-tale signs that a trained user can pick up on quickly. For example:.

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The majority of OS updates have a security patch or fix relevant to the latest threats. When prompted by the phone manufacturer to install a new update, click yes or schedule the install as quickly as possible. Mobile app stores are full of apps that act as a delivery mechanism for spyware or virus infection. If an app regularly pushes out unexpected and intrusive pop ups or asks for personal information, your best bet is to delete it.

Desktop or mobile, the biggest risk factors in cyber security are human. We all need to be empowered with an awareness of the risks that come with mobile, and switched on to the signs of infection or breach. If you have a BYOD policy in place at work, it should be well understood that when mobile devices are used away from the office — particularly on public wifi connections — the threat of infection tends to increase. A major breach at a billing provider for the US healthcare sector has exposed the personal and financial information of over 20 million people — and possibly more.

Exposed data includes many of the key ingredients needed for identity theft: US Social Security National Insurance numbers, payment card details, bank account information; as well as names, home addresses, phone numbers, and dates of birth. Company officials only admitted to the incident after being confronted repeatedly by journalists and analysts, and after law enforcement had been notified. Security analysts Gemini Advisory first identified ca.

Then additional research revealed that the hack lasted at least seven months and affected more than , victims. Continuing analysis has revealed a data loss exceeding 20 million records. Cybercriminals place a premium on data held by healthcare organisations. Even when the number of records stolen is low, the information can be used to create fake medical credentials.

These are used to generate false invoices and fraudulently bill for procedures that never happened. Despite the value and sensitivity of the customer data they held, AMCA looks to have flubbed its initial response. They sat on the information and waited too long to alert their business customers. Surveys have shown that judge brands harshly following a major hack. Hacked companies often find the cost of acquiring new customers goes up.

If the public reaction to a breach looks shifty and evasive, winning back market confidence will be even harder. It can happen to healthcare billing providers, it can even happen to the companies that make the networking kit that gets hacked. But remediation costs can be minimised and trust enhanced by how well a company reacts. Alongside better crisis communications, organisations also need to continually assess their security posture — as well as the level of awareness inside the organisation of how sensitive the issue of privacy and data protection has become for end users.

Want to know more? Ransomware strikes again, this time shutting down operations of a major airplane parts manufacturer and risking the jobs of up to 1, people in four countries. The incident has reportedly disrupted product deliveries to customers and impacted roughly 1, employees, who have been placed on temporary leave.

ASCO customers include Airbus, Boeing and US defence contractor Lockheed Martin, who will all likely see their supply chains and manufacturing timelines disrupted as a result. But the attack highlights again how powerful and dangerous ransomware can be.

Why was ASCO targeted? Greed is the likely answer, though as part of the defence industry ecosystem there could well be political intent behind disrupting the operations of a key aerospace contractor. And the full impact has yet to be felt.

Imagine the devastating commercial damage should an Airbus or Boeing shift all or part of its business to an alternate supplier. For now: over a thousand employees are now on extended layoff. With their access to systems and facilities, insiders have the power to leak intellectual property, disrupt operations, damage company reputation, and expose sensitive information to third parties. This can happen maliciously, or as happens in most cases — as a by-product of carelessly sharing passwords, clicking questionable email links, leaving USB sticks lying around, or being generally lax in observance of security policies.

Better training is key to tackling the intentional and unintentional types of insider threat, both to make staff aware of their own actions and sensitise them to signs of adverse behaviour in others. With breaches becoming a standard business risk , preparing for them needs to be part of standard business planning. Cybersecurity is about people as much as technology. If you can raise visibility across the organisation of the security risks that can lead to ransomware infection, you also raise the bar for attackers.

Radiohead are releasing 18 hours of unreleased music after cybercriminals gained access to a hard drive and demanded a ransom. Should every business do a Radiohead if ransomware strikes their systems?

Cyber Security Research

Opinion in the cybersecurity community is somewhat mixed. But a study from CyberEdge showed that fewer than 20 per cent of organisations who paid to have their files de-encrypted actually got them back. Many ransomware players also demand payment in cryptocurrency to better hide their tracks. Depending on the virtual coin, companies that do give in often find themselves facing sudden swings in asset value — raising the cost again.

A survey by AppRiver shows that more than half 55 per cent would be willing to pay the ransom to recover their locked data. Ransomware attacks are up by per cent — because they work. Until ransomware attacks start to meet persistent, stubborn resistance, cybercriminals will continue to chance their arm. If you want to avoid having to make the decision between paying ransom or losing access to essential data, follow these steps:. If you raise visibility across the organisation of the security risks that can lead to ransomware infection, you raise the bar for attackers.

An effective security awareness training program is one of the best ways to ensure that everyone in the organisation has an appropriate level of know-how about security — and takes on a level of personal responsibility. For some businesses, simply paying the ransom and hoping to restore operations quickly could look like the easy way out. But will you get your data back? Hackers have hit the US Customs and Border Protection CBP agency, accessing photos taken of travellers and their cars as they moved through road entry points.

The breach comes just as CBP is expanding its programme of facial recognition, and collection of more detailed traveller data. CBP says its removing software and devices related to the breach, and auditing all work completed by the sub-contractor. While there may have been a time when large organisations would reluctantly assume some of the responsibility for data security across their supply chains, tolerance for failure is rapidly disappearing.

Businesses are now being held to account by regulators and customers for the actions, or negligent inaction, of suppliers. Consumers now judge companies on how reliably they protect personal data. The brand that contracts the supplier and gives it access to customer data gets the blame.

Security Metrics: Replacing Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt

CUI is data which is sensitive, but not classified. A contractor would normally only hold it in order to fulfill their responsibilities on government projects. They did so anyway. As more and more detail from our lives is curated on social media, as more business is transacted online, and as video and surveillance technology advances, the opportunities to collect and analyse personal data grows exponentially every year. Governments are ramping up the amount of information they hold on individuals.

Access to that information is shared between government departments, agencies, and a long list of suppliers. We often point the finger at nation state actors like China and Russia for violating privacy or looking to steal private info, but in the cyber surveillance game, pretty much everyone is at it. Personal privacy is an obvious concern, as is the possibility of identity theft should detailed data about us fall into the wrong hands.

Aligning Security Metrics With Business Initiatives

But until the current direction of government policy and legal protections changes, companies and individuals need to adopt measures that will minimise how much information about us can be accessed and mis-used. Organisations need to supplement information security investments by empowering their own people to be on the lookout for cyber attacks and the signs that a hacker is trying to breach corporate networks or personal devices.

Cyber risk as a daily management challenge and enlisting your own people to help is the most effective way to stay secure. Get employees fired up and ready to battle back. Register now to get started and experience The Defence Works for yourself. The Defence Works. All rights reserved.

Struggling to get security right in Redmond Microsoft has put a lot of money and effort into turning around perceptions that it is weak on security. Share this:. Radiohead said no.


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  • Three quarters said a successful attack would hurt their business. They have a history of spectacular success. Just say yes? Mid-sized organisations might feel particularly vulnerable as they have smaller cybersecurity budgets, but the truth is that organisations of all sizes have the power to stop ransomware attacks: Conduct regular system backups and keep them on separate systems or physical media disconnected from the network.

    Develop a business continuity and recovery plan. This includes having backups ready and testing them to ensure they work. Update systems when security patches arrive. The number of major attacks enabled by failure to patch a known vulnerability is astonishing. Train your employees. Showing staff how to spot an attack can be one of the most effective ways to keep ransomware out and data safe.

    A pattern of cyber-passivity A report by the Office of the Inspector General says the JPL has seen several notable cybersecurity incidents over the past 10 years that compromised major parts of its IT infrastructure.