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Third Edition, with Additions. GiTt Mrs. Hence it is, that a deserved import- ance has ever been attached to the correspondence of persons who have figured with distinction in po- litical revolutions, and the foundation of new states: IV PREFACE. It is presumed, therefore, that littla need be saiil on the value of the correspondence of Dr. V viftw tb pahlUiiOkfh. Are conduct of private life, and the interests of nations. The correspondence contained in this collection, is indeed a store of the soundest lessons of practical wisdom upon subjects of uniTersal moment, and it is also a repository of information which will afford the best instruction to politicians, and will prove a sure guide to the future historiaUt who shall undertake the task of recording the several stages that have led to the establishment of American Independence, with the consequences of that event upon the states of Europe.

The Memoirs op the Life, and. They are di- vided into Three Parts ; each Put being puUished and sold separately; viz. Letters on Miscellaneous Subjects. PAGE Dr. Franklin to Rev. Advice in reading -.

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March 17, JuOe 26, On the slave trade -. Priestley, Sept. Moral Algehra, or method of deciding doubtful mafters with aiuself - - - - IT , to the Rev. PART I. Franklin to Dr. Priestley, Paris, Jan. ThoippMlla TaI. UBe fibJH, if 77 - 26 to Dr. Cooper, Boston J May 1, - 29 to Mr. Thomas Viny, Tenierden, Kent Passy,. Discourage ing his going to the Untied States under the expectation of being employed in its armies - 35 to Sir Edward Ntwenham, bart.

Bache, bis daughter June 3, Fa- rious matter - - - - 41 to Mr. Bridgen, London Oct. Priestley, Feb. Various matter - - - 56 to. Miarch 16, PoUlical squibs— Dr. Bond, Bfaich 16, On receksmg hit veniim of SaUust - - - 34 Dr. Gushing, Boston May 1, -.

Respecting Dr. Prices Feb, 6, - - - 50 to Dr. Various matter -. Hopkiuson, esq. March 6, PoJtiical squibs — Dr. Bond; March 16, Vhmklin to Dr. Cooper, March 1 6,1 7SQ. Oriffin, esq. Madrid Jane IJ, If ReioHve to Sir J. FothergiU, June 19, Letter of friend- ship - - -. Smallj July i?. Friendship, gout, 4v. Price, Oct. On the British par- Hamsnt — Religious tests, Sfc. Franklin, Nov. Respect- ing. Jay; esq. On the suhfect of Dr. FrmkUn's requests 76 Col. Laurens to Dr. Franklin, June 9, On Dr. Franklin's wish to retire — and his grandson - 77 Dr. Aanklin to Col.

Laurens, Nov. Re- meeting Dr. Hodgson, April. AbominaMe con- duct of a Mr. Digges — Peace — Proposals of mediation - - - to W.

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Carmichael, esq. April 12, Respect- ing Dr. TAQM Dr. Weodorp and Thomas Hope Heygher, June 8, Nixon, Sept. Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Sept. Hopkinson, esq. Re- laiive to Qfm. Laurens - 93 to Messrs. JBieiative to a claim of relationehip ynth Dr. FranUiM - 94 to Gov. Relative to Mn. JIobart - - - to, Mrs. Laurens, Dec. Sft Containing adince to certain manufacturers intefuttng to, pmigrate to America - - - ,.

Washington, AprU 2t Asaph, Dr. Shipley 'March 17, Eulogium of Thomas HoUis -. Bache, Jan. Remarks on the British government - to William Stivhan, esq. Waller, Fiinter, London April 17, On his advice to the peaph of America -. July 26, Re- straints on commerce — Luxurtf and industry - to Dr. Price, August 16, Lord Viscount Howe,. August 19, August 2U Priestley , August 21, Vaughan, esq. Introduction of Count Mirabeau - - to B. Taughan, esq. April 21, Refusing, his eulogium and dedication - - to Dr.

Ingenhausz, April 29, May 19, May 19, - ib. W, J Os kis intended imst by ' Houdon -. Jay, Sept. Oh his Writings - - - to Dr. Bancroft, Nov. On a proposed new tdiHon of Dr. Franklin's Writings by Mr. Shipley, Bishop of St. Asaph, Feb. Hewson, May 6, On a re- formed alphabet - - - - to William Cooke, esq. Small, Feb. On the fretdmm of conmerce— State 4ifjlmerwa - - to Mr. RUe9f - - to Mr. Smalls Sept. Relative ''. Respect- I ing Dr. Thanking her for his portrait Ingenhausz, Oct. Re- lative to Dr. Partridge, Nov. On the death of Ben. Kent — Orthodoxy - - to Mrs. Mecom, Dr. Franklin's sister Nov.

Greene, March 2, - - to Mrs. Wfigbt, Nov. Small, Nov. IS, On the off airs of France - -. Meoom-, Dec. In answer tOr the foregoing Stiles to Dr. Franklin, January 28, Stiles, March 9, PAVE Dr. FnutUio to Joseph Galloway, esq. Jane 13, Attempt ta fcrm a coalition of partiee.

Right claitfuei to tax the colonies. Paper moneif - -SSI. Qremille - Governor Pownali to Dr. Franklin - - - - Dr. Franklin to Governor Franklin, Jan. Change of ministry — Bedford party to come in - to Joseph Galloway, esq. Restraining act rela- tive to paper money — Conversation with Lord. Bedcford'e biu to prevent bribery and corruption — Sarcastic reply to Mr, Thurhw, who oppoted it - Dr.

Fralikliii to Thomas Wharton, esq.

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Philadelphia; Lon- don, Feb. Repeal oftheduty act — Change of government — Legal tender of paper money to Governor Franklin, April 16, Ross, May 14, May 14, 17fi8. July 2, Franklin, Aiig. If, Affair of St. Mareh 9, Lord Dartmouth's ufish to heal the breach between Great Britain and America - -. The Bishop of St. Thomas Gushing, esq. IhdMnssn's speech — Conversation with Lord Dartmouth respecting the same - Tliomas Gushing, esq. Jno'e 2, American duty on tea to tlic same, July 7t Mather, Bosion July 7, Jvly itS, Printing of Gov.

Huichinson'a let-. Qovemor r - to Gqveraor Eraokliu, Sept 1, Thomas Cushiaie, esq. GaUoway , esq. Suffposed disposition. Janw Ji Priestley, Philadelphia, May l6, State of America on Dr. Price, or David Hartley, esq. Prerident ot Congress, Nantes, Oct. Josiah Quincy, esq. Franklin to John Jay, esq. Preskiciit of Congress, Passy, Oct. Cooper, Oct. Jebb to Dr. Franklin, London, Oct. Franklin to Samuel Huntington, esq. Passy, Dec. Capture of Mr. American affairs - - - - - ib. Cooper, May 25, Ntm Con- stitution of Massachusetts — Maintenance of the. Clergy - - - -. Franklin to the Hon. Robert Morris, esq.

Ingenhaus2, Oct. Arnold's trea- cheryf SfC.

Adams, esq. Robert Morris, Dec 25, Vaugban, esq. March Reflections on the American treaty with England — Making England ufreeport. John Jay, Passy, Feb. Justification of the. To George Whitfield. On Faith and Good Works. Franklin had reliered Mr. Should desire is, that you would always be equally ready o oerve any other person that may ueed your assistance, and so let good offices go round; for mankind are all of a familjr. For I do not think that thanks and eempliments, though.

By heaven we understand a state of happiness, infinite in. Advice in Reading. Craven Street, May 16, I beg her to accept of them as a small mark of my esteem and friendship. They are written in the familiar easy manner for which the French are so remarkable ; and affdrd a good deal of philosophic and practical knowledge ttiiieiiibarnissdd with the dry madiematics, used by more exact reiwoners, but which is apt to discourage young beginners. This may at first seem troublesome and interrupting; but it is a trouble that will daily diminish, as you will daily find less and less occasion for your dictionary, as you beconie mofe acquainted with the terms ; and.

When any point occurs, in which you would. Yours affectionately, B. In vain 1 endeavored to. Yesterday he called to wit me, when, mischievously beut to try his judgment, I stepped into my closet, tore off the top of Mr. Indeed, from the marriages that have fallen under. With us in America, marriages are generally in the morning of life; our children are therefore educated and settled in the world by noon ; and thus, our business being done, we have an after- noon and evening of cheerful leisure to ourselves ; such as our friend at present enjoys.

In fine, I am glad you are married, and congratulate you most cordially upon it. You are now in the way of becom- ing a useful citizen; and you have escaped the unnatural state of celibacy for life— -the fate of many here, who never intended it, Jbut who having too long postponed the change of their condition, find, at length, that it is too late to think of it, and so live all their lives in a situation that greatly lessens a man's value.

Aa odd volume of a set of books bears not the value of its proportion to the set : what think you of the odd half of a pair of scissars? I am old and heavy, or I should ere this have presented them in person. I sliall make but small use of the "old man's privilege,. Treat your wife always with respect ; it will procure resped to you, not only from her, but from all diat observe it.

Never , usie a slighting expression to her, even in jest ; for slights in Jest, after frequent bandyings, are apt to end in angry earnest. Be sober and FABT t. Respecting Mr. Peter ColUman. Peter Collinson, ' is intended to be given to the public, I cannot omit expressing my approbation of the design. And as you may be unac- quainted with the following instances of his zeal and useful- ness in promoting knowledge, which fell within my observa- tion, I take the liberty of informing you, diat in 1 , a ' Paltr Collinson, F.

Empire State of Mind How Jay-Z Went From Strfice

Franklin, who received from him many hints and papers on the lubjecttfelestricity. The success of this library gready owing to his kind countenance and good advice encouraged the erecting others ia different places on the same plan; and it is supposed there are now upwards of thirty subsisting in the several cokwM ndiich have contributed greatly to the spreading of ussfol knowledge in that pert of the world ; the books he reconiH mended being all of that kind, and the catalogue of this fos fibrary being much respected and followed by those librarim tbat succeeded. To Samuel Rhoabs, Esq.

Containing the Method of covering Housei with Copper. It is I fear partly, if not altogether, my fault that our correspondence has not been regularly continued. One of our good citizens, Mr. Tlie sheets of the copper for this covering are two feet by four, and for covering the slopes of the roof are cast so thin as to weigh eight or nine pounds, and for covering the flats or gutters, tan or eleven pounds each, or about one pound, or a pound and ft quarter to the superficial foot.

It prevents the jingling s6und of hail or rain falling upon the roof, and answers ano- ther purpose, to be mentioned by-and-bye. I should be glad you would peruse it, thmk of the matter a of two sheets are Uid down so as to lap or cover each other an inch, and a slip of the same copper, about three and a half inches broad, called the reeve, is introduced between them.

Indents are then cut U inch deep upon the seam at top and bot- tom. The right-hand sheet and the reeve are then folded back to the left. The reeve is then folded to the right, and the sheets being laid on the roof in their place, it is nailed down to the sheeting with flat- beaded short copper nails. Four sheets are now laid down, with the seam or joint rising to the ridge ; and thus the work is continued, both vertically andlMh rizontally, till the roof be covered, the sides and ends of each sheet being alternately each way, undermost and uppermost.

When yon have doiie with the paper, please to give it to Mr. I suppose his cojpper teust have been thinner. We scarcely ever hear of fire in Paris. When t was there, I took particular notice of the construction, of their bouses, and I did not see how one of them could weH be burnt. Stone staircases too. The resolution yjipu have taken to use more exercise is extremely proper ; ind I hdpe you will steadily perform it. It is of the greatest faipoitance to. Franklin's son, to whom the first part of the Mskoias of aiaLiiaisaddrsamt. The dumb bell is another exercise of the latter compendious kind ; by the use of it I have in forty swings quickened my pulse from sixty to one hundred beats in a minute, counted by a second watch ; and I sup- pose the warmth generally increases with quickness of pulse.

Qn the Slave Trade. I made a little extract from yours of April dTj of the number of slaves imported and perishing, with some ' An American philanthiopist. I am glad to hear that the disposition against keeping negroes grows iqore general iu North America. Your labors have already been attended witb great effects : I hope therefore you and your friends will be encouraged to proceed : my hearty wishes of success attend you, being ever, my dear friend. To Dr. Moral Jlgebra, or Method of.

In , be published Historical Accoimtsof Guinea; with an Inquiry into the Rise and Progress of the Slave-Trade, its nature and lament- able effects. This amiable man seemed to have nothing else at heart but the good of his fellow-creatures ; and the last act of his life was to take from his desk six dollars for a poor widow. Hence the various purpdses or inclinations that alter- tmttiy prevail, and the uncertainty that perplexes us. If I find a reason pro equal io Bomt two reasons con, I strike out the three.

Mfishmg AtLCtitlj that yoti may c lete mrin e for the best, t wok everj my dear friend, yoidlrs mosi idBSsctiodately, B. Dissenters' Petition. Reverend Sir, London, July 7, By a lioe of the 4th past, I acknowledged the! It is written by a dissenting minister at York.

But Cotion I remember in the vigor of his preaching and usefulness. BrunstUsy Dec. He was a most learned geogra- pher, astronomer, and navigator. He isailed in , with a vessel quipped by the orders of Isabella, daughter of John II. He made a map of his discoveries, delivered it to the King, and sent a copy of it to Nuremberg;, his native city, where it is still preserved in the archives of the city.

It was after the in- spection of this map that Columbus undertook his expedition. The honor of this discovery has also been claimed by the Ice- landers. The following account stands on tiie testimony of Torssus, and Angrim Jonas, two writers of un- doubted credit, who have faithfully copied the old historians of their country. The circumstances give the accoui]it a great appearance of authenticity.

He steered by his observation of the stars, and from a te- membrance of what he had heard of the direction in which the plttoe he was in search of lay. During the three first days, he stood to the west, but the wind varying to the north, and blowing strong, he wia forced to run to the southward. The wind died away in about t4 hours, i hea they discovered land at a distance, which, as they. They then stood to the north-west, and observed a bite of the sea which formed an island, bat did not put in there. After aome days they arrived safe in Greenland.

They however wintered in a place where the tempera- ture of the air was mild, and the land fertile, producing fine grapes, from which they named it Vineland. The following year, a ship was sent out to push the discovery still further, but being overtaken by a storm, she was much damaged, and returned. The distance from the same point 16 the nearest coast pf Labrador is much less. This reasoning is still further enforced, when 'we reflect, that Iceland itself is nearly double tbat distance from the nearest parts of Norway.

Fran rlin. L msh I CQttld'send hence any American literary production worthy of your perusal ; but as yet the muses have scarcely visited these iremote regions. I therefore take the liberty of sending your highness a copy, with some other papers which contain accounts of the successes wherewith Providence has lately favored us.

If in any thing on this side the globe 1 can ren- der either service or pleasure to your royal highness, your commands will make me happy. With the utmost esteem and veneration, I have the honor to be your Serene High- ness-s most obedient and most humble servant, B. Major Carleton, who was so kind as to forward it to me, had not an opportunity of dcSng it sooner. Pam, Feb. You are too early, hussy , as well as too saucy, ia calling me rebel ; you should wait for the event, which will determine whether it is a rebellion or only a revolution.

As she appeared in great perplexity, scarce knowing where to go, I persuaded hes to stay ; and I went to the general officers then commaoding there, and recommended her to their protection ; which they promised and performed. For you must know she is a ioryess as well as you, and can as flip- pantly call rebel, I drank tea with her ; we talked aifec- tioiiately of you and our other friends the Wilkes's, of whom she bad received no late intelligence : what became of her since, I have not heard. The street she lived in was some ihonths after chiefly burnt down ; but as the town was then, and ever since has been, in possession of the king's troops, 1 have had no opportunity of knowing whether she suffered any loss in the conflagration.

Cheap's jttd Dr. Pray learn, if you Hiffre not already learnt, like me, to be pleased with other people's pleasures, and happy with their happiness, when none occur of your own ; then perhaps you will not so soon be weary of the place you chance to be in, and so fond of nunbling to get rid of your ennui. I fancy you have hit ttpdn the right reason of your being weary of St.

A month in Bridewell, beating hemp, upon bread and water, would give you health and spirits, and subsequent cheerfulness and contentment, wiih every other situation. I prescribe that regimen for you, my dear, in pure good-will, without a fee. And let me tell you, if you do not get into temper, neither Brussels nor Lisle will" suit you. Think how this must appesr, among the powdered heads of Paris! Don't be proud of this long letter. A fit'of tKfe gout, which has confined me five days, and made me reftee to see company, has given me a little time to trifle ; other- wise it would have been very short, visitors and bUsineA would have interrupted : and perhaps, with Mrs, BarrdW, you wish they had.

Cooper, Boston! Paris, May 1, On that head I cannot be more explicit at present. I rejoice with you in the happy change of affairs in America last winter : I hope the same train of success wfll cotttiniie through the summer. Hence it is a common observation here, that our cause is ike cause of all mankind; and that we are fighting for their liberty in defending our own.

It is a gloiious task assigned 08 hy Providence ; which has, I trust, given us spirit and - tirtut equal to it, and will at last crown it with success. Winthbop, Boston. Deab Sm, Paris, May 1, I forwarded yow letter to Dr. I send you enclosed one of the mmf satires that have appeared on this occasion. I To Mr. Gushing, Boston. Sir, Paris, Minf I, The general news here is, that all Europe is arming and preparing for war, as if it were soon expected.

Many of the powers, however, have their reasons for endeavoring to postpone it, at least a few months longer. Our enemies will not be able to send against us all the strength they intended : they can procure but few Germans ; and their recruiting and impressing at home, goes on- but heavily. They threaten, however, and give out, that Lord Hpwe. This campaign is entered upon with a mixture of rage and despair, as their whote flisheme of reducing us depends upon its success ; the wisest of the nation being clear, that if this fails, administration will not be able to support another.

I received with great pleasure your kind letter, as I learnt by it diat my hospitable fnend suU eitisttf, and tbit his friendship for me had not abated. When all the bustle is over, if my short remainder of life will permit my return thither, what a pleasure will it be to me to see my old friend and his children settled there!

To Mrs. She was the niece of the celebrated John Wesley, but was born at Philadelphia, in which city her wrent8 settled at an early period. Franklin and others, with whom she corres- VOL. As to the exercise of your art here, I am in doubt whethei; it, would answer your expectations.

Here are two or three who profess it, and make a show of their works on the Boulevards; but it is not the taste for persons of fashion to sit to these artists for their portraits : and both house-rent and living at Paris are very expensive. I thought that friendship required I should acquamt yoa with these circumstances; after whkh you will use your diseretion. I am, 8cc. My grandson, whom you may remember when a little saucy boy at school, being my amanuensis in writing the within letter, has been diverting me with his remailcs. He conceives that your figures cannot be packed up, without damage from any thing you could fill the boxes with to keep ponded during the whole war.

As soon as a general was appointed, or a squadron begun to be fitted out, the old lady found means ef access to some family where she t:ould gain information, and thus, without being at all suspected, she contrived to transmit an account of the number of the troops, and the place of their destination to her political friends abroad. The great Lord Chatham honored her with his visits, and she took his likeness, which appears in Westminster Abbey.

PAST 1. To General Beckwith. Discouraging his going to the United States, under the ex- pectation of being employed in its armies,. As to my recommendation, whatever weight it might have had formerly, it has in several instances been so improperly employed through the too great confidence I had in recommendations from others, that I think it would at present be of no importance if it were necessary ; but after that above mentioned of so great a general, and so good a judge of military merit as Prince Ferdinand, a character of you from roe would be impertinence. Upon the whole, I can.

Their injustice has already cost them dear, and if persisted in, will be their ruin. To General Gates. Dear Sir, Pflsiy, June 2, I consider them with you as the effects of apparent securityy which do not affect the grand points of independence, and adherence to treaties ; and which will vanish at a renewed appearance of danger. Franklin's son-in-law. IdL'thenv remiMn in the nnserable situation.

I am surprised to hear that my grandson. Temple Frank- lin, being with me, should be an objection against me, and diat there is a cabal for removing him. Methinks it is rather some merit tliat I have rescued a valuable young man from the danger of being a tory, and fixed him in honest repub- lican whig principles ; as I think from the integrity of his disposition, his industry, his early sagacity, and uncomnoon abilities for business, he may in time become of great service to.

I am continued here in a foreign country, where, if I am sick, his filial attention comforts me, and, if I die, I haye a child to close my eyes and take care of my remains. His dutiful behavior towards me, and his diligence and fidelity in business, are bodi pleasing and useful to me. His conduct as my private secretary has been unexceptionable, and I am confident the congress will never think of separat- ipgus. Tis a good honest lad, and will make, I think, a valuable man. He hkd made as much proficiency in his learning as the boiarding I Oovecnor Franklin.

He promised to take care of bim, and enclosed I send you the letters 1 have since received relating to him and from him. He- weut very cheerfully, and I understand is. I miss his company on Sundays at dinner. Thanks be to God, I continue well and hearty. I have some times the gout, hut they say that is not so much a disease as a remedy. God bleu you. I am your affectionate father, B. Bache, Dr. Franklin's Daughter. Various matter. Dear Sally, Passtf, June 3, I have before me your letters- of Oct. If you knew how happy your letters make me, and considered how many mis- carry, I thmk you would write oftener.

I am much obliged to the Mios Cliftons for the kind caig they took of my house and furniture. I During the occupation of Philadelphia lij a firitish army. The clay medtUion of me you say yon gave to Mr, Hop- kiDsoii was the first of the kind made in France. A variety of others have been made since of different sizes ; some to be set in lids of snuff boxes, and some so small as to be worn in rings ; and the numbers sold are incredible. I think you did right to stay out of town till the summer was over for the sake of your child's health.

I hope you will get out again this summer during the hot months ;. In this case it coidd not be done; for as the pretended suspicions of him are groundless, and his behavior in every respect unexception- able, I should not part with the child, but with the employ- ment. But I am confident that whatever may be proposed by weak or malicious people, the congress is too wise and too good to think of treating me in that manner. Ben, if I should live long enough to want it, is like to be another comfort to me : as I intend him for a presbyterian as well as a republican, I have sent him to finish his edW' cation at Geneva.

He is much grown, in very good healthy draws a little, as you will see by the enclosed, learns Latin, writing, arithmetic, and dancing, and speaks French better than English. He made a translation of your last letter to him, so that some of your works may now appear in a foreign language.

I send the accounts 1 have of him, and I shall put him in mhid of writing to you. I cannot propose to you to part with yonr own dear Will : I must one of these days go back to see him ; happy to be once more all together I but futurities are uncertain. The present you mention as sent by me, was rather that of a merchant at. If you wear your cambric ruffles as I do, and take care not to mend the holes, they will come in time to be lace ; and feathers, my dear girl, may be had in America from every cock's tail. If you happen again to see General Washington, assure him of my very great and sincere respect, and tell him that all the old generab here amuse themselves in studying the accounts of his operations, and approve highly of his con- duct.

Bridgen, London. On copper coinage for the United States. I received your favor of the I7th past, and the two samples of copper are since come to hbnd. Ttie nietal iseems to be very good, and the price reasonable, but I have not' yet received the orders necessary to justify my making the pur- chase proposed. There has indeed been an intentioifi to sGrike copper coin that may not only be useful as small change, but serve other purposes.

Instead of repeating continually upon every halfpenny the dull story that every body knows and what it would have been no loss to mankind if nobody had ever known , that Geo. The fear of the Lofdisthe beginning of wisdom ; on others. Honesty ft the best policy ; on others. I return them most cordially fourfold into your own bosom. Vaughan, Esq. On his edition of some of Dr. Franklin's writings.

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They gave me however great pleasure, as they acquainted me with your welfare, and that of your family, and other friends ; and I hope you will continue writing to me as often as you can do it conve- niently. I thank you much for the great care and pains you have taken in regulating and correcting the edition of those papers. Your friendship for me appears in almost every page; and if the preservation of any of them should prove of use to the public, it is to you that the public will owe the obligation.

In looking them over, I have noted some faults of impression diat hurt the sense, and some other little matters, which you will find all in a sheet under the title of Errata. You can best judge whether it may be worth while to add any of them lo the errata already printed, or whether it may not be aa. Enclosed I send a more perfect copy of die chapter. I did not write the pamphlet you mention. I know nothing of it. I suppose it is the same concerning which Dr.

Priest- ley formerly asked me the same question. I have received Dr. Crawford's book, but not your abstract, which I wait for as you desire. Miscel- tunsSySec. I send. Poor Henley's dying in that manner is inconceivable tome. I think the cougress judged rightly in their choice. An exactness in accounts, and scrupulous fi- delity in matters of trust, are qualities for which your father was eminent, and which I was persuaded were inherited by bis son when I took the liberty of naming him one of tlie executors of my will, a liberty which I hope you will excuse.

I am sorry for the losses you have suffered by the Goths and Vandahy but hope it will be made up to you by the good Providence of God, and the good-will of your country, to' whom your pen has occasionally been of service. I am glad the enemy have left something of my gimcrackery that is capable of affording you pleasure.

You are therefore very welcome to tlie use of my electrical and pneumatic machiues as long as you think proper. His correspondence was sought by men of letters in vaiious countries; and he imparted to Dr. Father Beccaria died at Turin, in an advanced age, in Every thing of your writing is always. Price, London. IngenhausZi who brought it, having staid loog in Holland. I sent that enclosed directly to Mr. Your writings, after all the abuse you and they have met with.

To Db. On true Science and its progress. Reflections on the Ineon- I : veniences attetiding all Situations in Life. Dear Sib, Passyy February 8, Your kmil letter of September 27th, came to hand but very lately, the bearer having staid long in Holland. I always rejoice to hear of your being still employed in ex- perimental researches into nature, and of the success yoo nieet with. Agriculture may diminish its labor and double its produce : idl diseases may by sure means be prevented or cured, not "excepting even diat of old age and our lives lengthened at pleasure, even beyond die antediluvian standard.

O that moral science were in as fair a way of improvement, that men tifonld cease to be woltes to one another, and that human beings would at length learn what they now improperly call humanity! If it should occasion farther inquiry, and so produce a better hypothesis, it will not be wholly useless. I am ever, with the greatest and most sinceie esteem, : Dear Sir, Sic. Hence we make frequent and troublesome changes without amendment tod often for the worse. In my youth 1 was passenger in a little sloop,"descending the river Delaware.

Part i. That great man seems to have no wish of returning into public employment, but amuses himself with planting, and is desirous of obtaining all: those trees of North America that have not yet been introduced into France. Your sending him a box of the seeds would, I am persuaded, much oblige him. They may be obtained of my young friend Bartram, livmg near Philadelphia. You will have heard that Spain has lately met with a little misfortune at sea, but the bravery with which her ships fought a vastly superior force, has gained her great honor.

We are. Thus, as it if always fkir weather in our parlors, it is at Paris always peace. Thit people pursue their, respective occupations ; the playhouses, the opera, and other public aiversions, are as regularly and fully attended, as in times of profoundest tranquillity, and the same small concerns divide us into psrties.

Withim- these few weeks we are for or against Jeannot, a new actor. This man's performance, and the marriage of die Duke de. We desire also that M. You will find some thoughts on that subject in a litde piece called " A merry Song about Murder" in a London newspaper I send herewith. BonD Philadelphia, Letter of friendship. Dear Sir, Pasy, March 16, Shake the bid ones by the hand for me, and give the young ones my blessing.

For my own part, I do not find that I grow any older. Remember me respectfully and afiectionately to Mrs. I am tvtr, yours, B. Cooper, Boston. Relative io hU grmndson. I received your kind favor by Captain Chavagnes, which I communicated to the minister of marine, who wil much pleased with the character yon give of Ae captain. I have also yours of Nov. Adam's sons aod aome other young Amerir cans. Not being liked here themselves, they dislike the people ; for the same reason, indeed, they ought to dislike all that know them.

GttiFFiN, Esc. I will take the first op- portunity of mentioning to Mr. But be has travelled in Europe and knows that modes of nations differ. The Frendi are convivial, live much at one another's tables, and are glad to feast travellers. The Americans bold a medium. I have the honor to be, fcc. CarmichaeL Esg. Sir J. So I suppose I shall have no communica- tion with him ; for I shall not seek it.

Empire State of Mind: How Jay-Z Went from Street Corner to Corner Office ( Pages )

As Count de Vergennes has mentioned nothing to me of any memorial from him, I suppose be has not presented it, — perhaps discouraged by the reception it met with in Spain. Carmlchael, in answer to this part of Dr. Part in. London has been ki the utmost confusion for seven or eight days. The beginning of this month, a mob of fanatics, jobed by a mob of rogues, burnt and destroyed property to the amount, it is said, of a million sterling.

Chapels of foreign ambassadors, houses of members of parliament, that had pro- moted the act for favoring Catholics, and the houses of many private persons of diat religion, were pillaged and consumed, or pulled down to the number of fifty; among the rest. Lord Mansfield's is burnt with all his furniture, pictures, books, and papers. Thus he who approved the burning American houses, has had fire brought home to him.

He himself was borably scared, and Governor Hutchinson, it is said, died outright of the fright The mob, tired with roaring and rioting seven days and nights, were at length suppressed, and quiet restored on the ninth in the evening. Next day Lord George Gordota was committed to the tower. Enclosed I send you the little piece you desire. Ssa Wsinyes, Pait in. Letter of Riendship. JMy dfear old friend, Dr.

Fothergilli nay elsim Lady H. As I am sometimes apprehensive of the samf disorder; I wish to know the means that were used and suc- ceeded in your case; and shall be exceedingly obliged to you for communicating them when you can do it conveniently. I am ever. Yours most affectionately, B. It was a great choice. Jay-Z stated in an interview that after he first heard the track's piano loops, he immediately thought of Keys and wanted her to be featured on the song.

Jay-Z said that Mary J. Blige was initially considered for Keys' part on "Empire State of Mind", and he was "two seconds away" from asking Blige to appear on the record's chorus, which would have been a safe move. However, the combination of Keys' sound and piano talent had struck a chord with Jay-Z. The piano, the way the style [is], the whole flow, and it couldn't be the anthem of New York without you.

I went to the studio, and [ In December Hunte, who would not reveal many details, said the original version of "Empire State of Mind" will one day be released, adding that "The original is so powerful it's only a matter of time till you hear it down the line". The piano component that runs throughout the song contains a sample of the single " Love on a Two-Way Street ", written by Burt Keyes and Sylvia Robinson, performed by The Moments. The song is played at a moderate tempo of 84 beats per minute and is written in the key of F major.

The song opens with lyrics referencing locations in New York, [9] and name-checks notable neighborhoods and captures the city's essence; from attending Knicks basketball games to its famous residents. Keys said that while recording the song she wanted to make sure she got the hook right explaining, "I did try it a couple of times, but it was more about capturing the kind of grand feeling of it. With the way I sang it the first time, I was actually kind of sick, and I knew that he needed the record, so I was like, 'Let me get to it.

USA Today ' s Steve Jones perceived a maturity by Jay-Z in the song, writing that "The upper-crust landmarks he now references are a far cry from the grimy Marcy Projects sights that he once detailed, something that perhaps is to be expected from the self-described 'new Sinatra'. Jay-Z, a long-time fan of the New York Yankees , said that he was elated that his songs, namely "Empire State of Mind" and "Run This Town", had been played during different Yankee player's batting at home games in the World Series.

In the United States the track peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot for five consecutive weeks, [56] from November 28 to December 26, replacing " Fireflies " by Owl City for the top position and giving Jay-Z his first number one single on that chart as a lead artist in his year career. According to Billboard magazine, the song was the 15th biggest hit by two recording artists for all time. The single sold , digital copies in the US in its opening week and its highest week sale was of , in December In the United Kingdom, the track debuted at number fifteen and, in the two succeeding weeks, peaked at number two.

Keys praised the music video and said that the video has all the key elements of a homage to her hometown. The music video opens with black and white images of locations in New York being shown in the form of a slideshow. The slideshow is then intercut with a black and white clip of Jay-Z, wearing a Yankees cap and a vest with no sleeves, performing the song on a street in front of apartment buildings. Then the video begins to rotate from images of New York being shown briefly, to clips of Jay-Z singing "Empire State of Mind" in several locations with different outfits.

Images shown include a monument to John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Next we see black and white clips of Keys, who is wearing large hoop-earrings with high heels, a black shirt and pants, playing a Yamaha piano that has an image of the Statue of Liberty on it. She is singing her verse of the song in a street at night while cars drive by. Some people, such as ones who are walking around New York or wearing Yankee emblems, have their faces shown or blurred out. Keys and Jay-Z, both wearing sunglasses at night, are then shown performing the song together as the video continues to be intercut with clips of them performing "Empire State of Mind" individually, as well as images of New York.

The video ends with color vision of the duo performing at night on the red glass steps forming the roof of the TKTS pavilion in Times Square.

Interspersed are clips of Keys playing piano and views of the New York skyline. Jay-Z's Lifestyle blog came out with an alternative video which features supermodels lip-syncing to the song in various locations in Manhattan. Towards the end of the performance rapper Lil' Mama got up onto the stage uninvited and posed with Jay-Z and Keys while they were finishing the final verse of the track. To disrupt that was outta line.

She added that "Keys, on piano and soaring chorus, brought the feminine strength and soul. Jay-Z was due to perform "Empire State of Mind" with Keys during the opening game of the baseball World Series in early October but, due to an inclement weather, the duo did not perform. Keys was not in attendance for the performance, so singer and Roc Nation recording artist Bridget Kelly filled in. Also, the words "New York" scrolled across screens on the stage.

Bars are open late and the public transportation is swell and all, but performing this love letter to New York in Los Angeles? We're tired of it. Jay-Z performed the song with a medley of his other singles, including " On to the Next One ". Following the release of "Empire State of Mind" in January , Keys stated that she was planning to release a second version of the song as a single the following month, featuring only her vocals. The original version, entitled "Empire State of Mind Part 2", included both Keys' vocals and a new rap verse from Jay-Z, [] but the final product did not include Jay-Z.

Comedy website CollegeHumor parodied the song in a video titled " Galactic Empire State of Mind" which re-writes the lyrics to follow the events of the first three Star Wars films from the perspective of Darth Vader. In the Welsh language Ymerodraeth means "empire". It's only tongue in cheek. Their work was also so well received in Wales that they were invited to the reopening of the Newport Transporter Bridge.

But the seven co-writers of "Empire State of Mind" refused to give permission for the Newport single, a situation which led to the video being removed from YouTube on August In the episode the fictional William McKinley High School glee club , upon learning that Nationals will be held in New York, decide to perform "Empire State of Mind" at the school courtyard, in the hopes it will pique the interest of their schoolmates.

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