Ten years later the American Sociological Society was organized, also to be followed by a large number of national, regional, international, and specialized sociological organizations. These groups institutionalized the subject and continue to guide its directions and define its boundaries. The rapid increase of full-time sociologists, along with the growth of sociology publications, allowed the content of the discipline also to expand rapidly.
Research grew throughout the 20th century at an accelerated pace, especially after World War II , partly because of strong financial support from foundations, government, commercial sources, and individuals. This period was also marked by the rising popularity of anthropology , and many universities formed joint anthropology-sociology departments.
By the s, however, growing interest in anthropology had resulted in the formation of separate anthropology departments at the larger research universities. At the same time, interest in sociological research continued to develop. By there were more than a dozen important sociological journals and an indefinite number of minor journals worldwide. Along with this growth came a flourishing of research institutions—some affiliated with university departments and some independent—which allowed a small but increasing number of sociologists to pursue full-time research free from teaching responsibilities.
In France , where Comte and later Durkheim gave early impetus to sociology, sociological research developed in a number of fields. These government-funded institutes employ many full-time sociologists, some of them among the more prominent scholars in the nation. The growth of sociological research at French universities has been somewhat more conservative; the Sorbonne, for example, in had only one chair officially assigned to sociology.
The University of Nanterre, however, established a department with four professorships. Immediately after the war a new generation of scholars, aided by visiting sociologists, imported the new empirical research methods and began to develop a style of German sociology much different from the earlier theoretical and philosophical traditions. The University of Cologne also established a department notable for its survey research. West German universities remained conservative for a time, but two newly created ones—the Free University of Berlin and the University of Constance—made sociology one of their major disciplines.
By most West German universities had at least one chair in sociology. National needs received special emphasis, including studies of unemployment, youth problems, and delinquency. A significant amount of German research also is published in such fields as rural sociology, political sociology, and the family. Despite the early prominence of Herbert Spencer and L. Hobhouse, the leading universities of the United Kingdom virtually ignored sociology until the midth century. British sociology concentrated on studies of the poor, and much of it was undertaken by people with experience in social work rather than social research.
The major prewar sociology department, at the London School of Economics, prioritized social reform over scientific research. In the postwar period, however, a considerable revival of sociology took place; Oxford and Cambridge recognized the subject by creating positions for sociologists, and various new universities established chairs and departments. Significant work in Britain has emerged in such fields as population and demography , sociology of organization, politics and industry, social stratification, and general sociology.
The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in London has become world famous and concentrates on human relations in the family, the work group, and organizations. Foucault, M. Gellner, D. Contested hierarchies: A collaborative ethnography of caste among the Newars of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press. Gorringe, H. Untouchable citizens: Dalit movements and democratization in Tamil Nadu. Gupta, D. Interrogating caste: Understanding hierarchy and difference in Indian society. New Delhi, India: Penguin.
Caste and politics: Identity over system. Annual Review of Anthropology, 34 , Guru, G. The language of Dalit-Bahujan political discourse. Mohanty Ed. Hardtmann, E. The Dalit movement in India: Local practices, global connections. Hebbar, N. The Hindu. Jaffrelot, C. Ambedkar and untouchability: Analysing and fighting caste.
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Mumbai, India: Orient BlackSwan. Waghmore, Civility against caste: Dalit politics and citizenship in western India pp. Why Jats want a quota. The Indian Express. Jodhka, S. Caste in contemporary India. New Delhi, India: Routledge. Jogdand, P. Reservation policy and the empowerment of Dalits. Michael Ed. Jogdand, N. Bhartachya samajik itihasatla vishmatavirodhi sangharsh: Ek ruprekha [Struggle against inequality in social history of India: An outline].
Jogdand, Y. Joshi, T. Jotirao Phule D. Agarwal, Trans. Juergensmeyer, M. Religion as social vision: The movement against untouchability in 20th century Punjab. Keer, D. Mahatma Jotirao Phule: Father of our social revolution. Pune, India: Popular.
Khan, S. Hindutva: A social psychological examination of the structure, content and intergroup consequences of Hindu nationalism in India Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Khare, R. The Untouchable as himself: Ideology, identity, and pragmatism among the Lucknow Chamars. Leach, C. Contesting the meaning of intergroup disadvantage: Towards a psychology of resistance.
The Journal of Social Issues, 71 3 , Group devaluation and group identification. The Journal of Social Issues, 66 3 , Mahadevan, T. Outlines of Hinduism. Mumbai, India: Chetna Publications. Majeed, A. Affective syndrome crises in scheduled castes. Social Change, 19 , Marx, K. Marx and Engels Collected Works Vol. London, United Kingdom: Lawrence and Wishart. Mavor, K. Right-wing authoritarianism, fundamentalism and prejudice revisited: Removing suppression and statistical artefact. Personality and Individual Differences, 46 , Mencher, J. The caste system upside down, or the not-so-mysterious east.
Current Anthropology, 15 , Mhaskar, S. Locating caste in a globalising Indian city: A study of Dalit ex-millworkers' occupational choices in post-industrial Mumbai. Still Ed. Mishra, A. Social psychological perspectives on self and identity. Misra Ed. Social and organizational processes pp. New Delhi, India: Pearson.
Moffatt, M. An untouchable community in South India: Structure and consensus. Moscovici, S. Social influence and social change. London, United Kingdom: Academic Press. Mosse, D. Idioms of subordination and styles of protest among Christian and Hindu Harijan castes in Tamil Nadu.
Contributions to Indian Sociology, 28 , Nagraj, D. The falming feet and other essays: The Dalit movement in India P. Shobhi, Eds. Ranikhet, India: Permanent Black. Narula, S. Broken people: Caste violence against India's "Untouchables". National Crime Records Bureau. Crime in India. National Human Rights Commission. Report on prevention of atrocities against scheduled castes.
Caste, conflict and ideology: Mahatma Jotirao Phule and low caste protest in nineteenth-century Western India. Omvedt, G. Understanding caste: From Buddha to Ambedkar and beyond. Mumbai, India: Orient Blackswan. Pai, S. Dalit assertion. Palshikar, S. Gandhi-Ambedkar Interface …when shall the twain meet? Economic and Political Weekly, 31 31 , Panini, M. The political economy of caste.
Understanding families in India: a reflection of societal changes
Srinivas Ed. New Delhi, India: Viking. Paranjpe, A. Caste, prejudice, and the individual. Mumbai, India: Lalvani. Parekh, B. Colonialism, tradition and reform: An analysis of Gandhi's political discourse. Debating India: Essays on Indian political discourse. Patil, S. Caste ending bourgeois democratic revolution and its socialist consummation. Pune, India: Sugava. Pratto, F. Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67 , Social dominance theory and the dynamics of intergroup relations: Taking stock and looking forward.
European Review of Social Psychology, 17 , Radhakrishnan, S. The Hindu view of life. Raheja, G. India: Caste, kingship, and dominance reconsidered. Annual Review of Anthropology, 17 , Rao, A. The caste question: Dalits and the politics of modern India. Rath, R. Inter-Caste relationship as reflected in the study of attitudes and opinions of six Hindu caste groups.
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The Journal of Social Psychology, 51 , Reicher, S. The context of social identity: Domination, resistance, and change.
Political Psychology, 25 , Self and nation. London, United Kingdom: Sage. Rodrigues, V. Making a tradition critical: Ambedkar's reading of Buddhism. In Peter Robb Ed. Roets, A. Can authoritarianism lead to greater liking of out-groups? The intriguing case of Singapore. Psychological Science, 26 , Rudolph, L. The modernity of tradition: The democratic incarnation of caste in India. The American Political Science Review, 59 , Said, E. Schmitt, M. Will the real social dominance theory please stand up? The British Journal of Social Psychology, 42 , Attitudes toward group-based inequality: Social dominance or social identity?
Searle-Chatterjee, M. Contextualizing caste: Post-Dumontian approaches. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell. Seetharaman, G. The Economic Times. Sharma, A. Classical Hindu thought: An introduction.
Sharma, U. Caste: Concept in the social sciences. Founders of Indian sociology and anthropology. New Delhi: Permanent Black , National Commission for Minorities, New Delhi , Review of Development and Change 2 2 , , Articles 1—20 Show more. Help Privacy Terms. Exclusive inequalities: Merit, caste and discrimination in Indian higher education today S Deshpande Economic and Political Weekly, , Hegemonic spatial strategies: The nation-space and Hindu communalism in twentieth-century India S Deshpande Public Culture 10 2 , , After culture: Renewed agendas for the political economy of India S Deshpande Cultural dynamics 10 2 , , Crisis in Sociology: A Tired Discipline?
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