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His break with Freud caused Jung much distress. Thrown back upon himself, he began a deepened self-analysis in order to gain all the integrity and firmness for his own quest into the dark labyrinth of the unconscious psyche. During the years from to Jung published only three important papers: "Two Essays on Analytical Psychology" , and "Psychological Types" The "Two Essays" provided the basic ideas from which his later work sprang.

He described his research on psychological typology extro-and introversion, thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition as psychic functions and expressed the idea that it is the "personal equation" which, often unconsciously but in accordance with one's own typology, influences the approach of an individual toward the outer and inner world. Especially in psychology, it is impossible for an observer to be completely objective, because his observation depends on subjective, personal presuppositions.

This insight made Jung suspicious of any dogmatism.

Next to his typology, Jung's main contribution was his discovery that man's fantasy life, like the instincts, has a certain structure. There must be imperceptible energetic centers in the unconscious which regulate instinctual behavior and spontaneous imagination. Thus emerge the dominants of the collective unconscious, or the archetypes. Spontaneous dreams exist which show an astonishing resemblance to ancient mythological or fairy-tale motifs that are usually unknown to the dreamer.

To Jung this meant that archetypal manifestations belong to man in all ages; they are the expression of man's basic psychic nature. Modern civilized man has built a rational superstructure and repressed his dependence on his archetypal nature—hence the feeling of self-estrangement, which is the cause of many neurotic sufferings.

In order to study archetypal patterns and processes, Jung visited so-called primitive tribes. He later visited Egypt and India. To Jung, the religious symbols and phenomenology of Buddhism and Hinduism and the teachings of Zen Buddhism and Confucianism all expressed differentiated experiences on the way to man's inner world, a world which was badly neglected by Western civilization. Jung also searched for traditions in Western culture which compensated for its one-sided extroverted development toward rationalism and technology.

He found these traditions in Gnosticism, Christian mysticism, and, above all, alchemy. For Jung, the weird alchemical texts were astonishing symbolic expressions for the human experience of the processes in the unconscious. Some of his major works are deep and lucid psychological interpretations of alchemical writings, showing their living significance for understanding dreams and the hidden motifs of neurotic and mental disorders. Of prime importance to Jung was the biography of the stages of inner development and of the maturation of the personality, which he termed the "process of individuation.

This achievement is a lifelong task of trial and error and of confronting and integrating contents of the unconscious. It consists in an ever-increasing self-knowledge and in "becoming what you are. He was a contemporary of Sigmund Freud and the two were friends until a bitter split over theoretical differences led Jung to form his own school of thought known as analytical psychology.

He was their fourth, but only surviving child. Jung later described himself was an introverted and solitary child, saying that he was most happy when he was left alone to his thoughts. At the age of 12, Jung was pushed to the ground so hard by another classmate that he lost consciousness.

Jung started fainting anytime he was supposed to go to school or do homework. His parents and doctors became convinced that the boy might have epilepsy. After Jung overheard his father confessing his concerns that his son would never be able to work and support himself, Jung developed a renewed focus on academics.

While he still fainted several times after he began studying again, he was eventually able to overcome the problem and return to school. Jung never experienced this problem with fainting again, but he later explained that the experience served as his first encounter with neurosis. Jung decided to study medicine, but also developed an interest in spiritual phenomena while in school. It was this fascination with medicine and spirituality that led him into the field of psychiatry, which he viewed as a combination of his two interests. In , he married Emma Rauschenbach.

While the two remained married until her death in , Jung reportedly continued to have romantic relationships with other women. One of these other women included his first patient at the Burgholzli Psychiatric Hospital, a young Russian woman named Sabina Spielrein.

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Based on letters exchanged between the two, the affair lasted for several years. Eventually, Jung broke off their romance after determining that it was having a negative impact on his career. When Jung was three his mother became depressed and was unavailable for several months. Jung always felt much closer to his mother than to his father. He experienced his father as having lost the faith, whereas he experienced his mother as having a deeply intuitive and religious nature. He entered the University of Basel in to study medicine, and completed his medical studies in the winter of His father died in His medical school thesis, The Psychology of So-Called Occult Phenomena , a study of spiritualistic seances of his cousin, was published in That same year, he spent several months in Paris as a student of Pierre Janet.

He discovered consistent patterns of expression and inhibition when select words were given to a subject who was instructed to react with the first word that came to mind. Jung coined the term "complex" for the cluster of images and emotion revealed when he inquired closely about the subject's experience of inhibition.

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He interpreted the results using Freud's theory of repression. In he married Emma Rauschenbach, the daughter of a prominent family in Schauffhausen. They had five children, four daughters and one son. Jung relied on her strong character and native intelligence, and later on she became an analyst in her own right. The work on complexes led to a correspondence with Freud and then to a meeting in The next six years saw their intense friendship and professional collaboration.

Jung became the "crown prince," the first president of the International Psychoanalytical Association, editor of the Jahrbuch , and a defender of psychoanalysis. They traveled to Clark University in Massachusetts together in , analyzing each other's dreams on the long ocean voyage. But, as Jung began to delve into mythology, a divergence on the meaning of libido became a central point of conflict between the two men.

Jung defined libido as meaning interest in general, and believed that all libido cannot be reduced to sexuality, other instincts such as hunger and culture having equal value. The second half came out in Here Jung focused on incest in terms of the mother-son pattern, and the need for the son to be delivered from the poser of the maternal unconscious. By this time the relationship between Freud and Jung had become so strained that Freud urged Jung to leave the psychoanalytic fold,.

From until Jung withdrew into a period of intense self-analysis, resigning his position at the University of Zurich. He called this his "confrontation with the unconscious. Jung's first major work of his post-Freudian phase was Psychological Types , in which he formulated the concepts of introversion and extroversion, along with the function types: sensation, thinking, feeling, and intuition.

For Jung this work continued his struggle for identity in relationship to Freud and Adler. Also, in the appendix he defined all the concepts for which his work would become most famous; collective unconscious, archetypes, individuation, dreams, psychic energy, etc. Furthermore, during this period he explicated his notions of psychotherapy as a dialectic between therapist and patient, who are equal partners in the psychological transformation. As his fame spread he began to receive analysands from many parts of the world.

He received honorary doctorates from many institutions, including Harvard and Oxford Universities. Jung's most controversial episode occurred in He replaced Ernst Kretschmer as president of the German Society of Psychotherapy and immediately made it into an International Society, so that Jewish members could retain membership. He remained president until , which meant he had to work closely with the Nazis. Some of his statements during this period have been construed as anti-Semitic, and those who have wished to discredit his work seized upon them as a pretext for their dismissal.

This issue has surfaced periodically for the past fifty years, but there is no definitive evidence that Jung ever was a Nazi sympathizer. On the other hand, we do know that he warned repeatedly against the dangers of mass movements, and that in he published Wotan , an uncompromising analysis of the psychological, and specifically archetypal, reasons for Nazism and of the risks it represented for the individual. In Jung had a massive, nearly fatal heart attack.


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His recovery was complete, but he retired from practice, continuing his research into alchemical studies, and writing two important books, The Psychology of the Transference and Mysterium Conjunctionis. Jung had become interested in alchemy in when a good friend, Richard Wilhelm, introduced him to the Chinese alchemical text, The Secret of the Golden Flower. Noting the similarities between alchemy and the unconscious patterns he observed in his analysands, he saw alchemy as the missing link between the mythology of the pre-Christian psyche and modern dreams. Jung valued his introversion greatly, and beginning in he built a tower in Bollingen, where he would spend solitary weeks.

He died after a brief illness on June 6, , in the house in which he had lived since Jung, Carl Gustav. The structure of the unconscious. Works Vol. Memories, dreams, reflections. Original work published at McGuire William. Mijolla, Alain de. Images of Freud: From his correspondence. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 5 , Kirsch, Thomas " Jung, Carl Gustav Kirsch, Thomas "Jung, Carl Gustav Psychologist Carl Gustav Jung — , who was born in the village of Kessweil, Switzerland on July 26, and died on June 6 in Zurich was, along with Sigmund Freud — , a creator of depth psychology.

His controversial research in this area has ethical implications for both makers and users of modern technology. In he achieved international recognition with his seminal study of dementia praecox schizophrenia , leading to a five-year collaboration with Freud, the originator of psychoanalysis. By , however, Jung found his ideas diverging from those of Freud, and from that point until the end of his life, Jung's intellectual journey was both creative and independent.

Like his former mentor, Jung was determined to penetrate and comprehend the human psyche at the deepest possible level. Unlike Freud, who emphasized the central importance of childhood experience in the understanding of neuroses, Jung focused on adult psychology, treating patients whose neuroses did not seem rooted in infantile experiences and fantasies.

Among Jung's now-familiar concepts are the personality traits of introversion and extroversion; psychological types which lead to the standardized Myers-Briggs typology test ; stage of life distinctions, including description of the mid-life crisis; primitive mental frameworks called archetypes embedded in acollectiveunconscious;and thenotionof the Shadow, a part of the psyche all but inaccessible to the conscious mind but often revealed in dreams.

Jung's body of work, together with that of Freud and Alfred Adler — , formed the basis of modern psychoanalytic techniques. These methods of treating mental disorders are today used alongside behavioral and cognitive therapy and increasingly psychoactive drugs. Criticism of Jung has tended to focus on the teleological i. His belief in synchronicity, a non-causal linkage of mental and physical phenomena, has also been criticized as speculative and without scientific foundation.

Can the concepts of the collective unconscious and the Shadow help people to better understand their connection to the natural world and to their own technological creations? Prominent Jungian psychologists James Hillman b. Historian Theodore Roszak b. Wilson b. Jung himself was much concerned with the impacts of modern life on the psyche.

Four years before his death, he published The Undiscovered Self, in which he argues that European civilization's obsession with the externalities of life had left largely untouched the mysteries of the human mind. The psyche, which is primarily responsible for all the historical changes wrought by the human hand on the face of this planet, remains an insoluble puzzle and an incomprehensible wonder, an object of abiding perplexity—a feature it shares with all of Nature's secrets. In regard to the latter, says Jung, human beings still have hope of making more discoveries and finding answers to the most difficult questions.

But in regard to the psyche and psychology there seems to be a curious hesitancy to explore. Jung's fear was that humankind's collective Shadow, empowered by modern technology, could be released destructively in all its irrational fury. It is not that present-day man is capable of greater evil than the man of antiquity or the primitive. He merely has incomparably more effective means with which to realize his propensity to evil. As his consciousness has broadened and differentiated, so his moral nature has lagged behind.

That is the great problem before us today. Reason alone no longer suffices. Jung , p. In Memories, Dreams, Reflections , Jung'spersonal memoir completed just weeks before his death, he stresses that the solution to the problem of evil lies in self-knowledge, to be arrived at through psychological inquiry:. Today we need psychology for reasons that involve our very existence … [W]e stand face to face with the terrible question of evil and do not know what is before us, let alone what to pit against it.

And even if we did know, we still could not understand "how it could happen here. His argument for the necessity of such psychological knowledge remains a basic challenge for the future development of scientific technology. For Jung, solutions to the problems of evil do not lie in simply extending power over nature, but in better understanding humankind and its place in the universe. Bair, Dierdre. Carl Jung : A Biography. Boston: Little, Brown. Collected Works, trans.

Richard Francis Carrington Hull. Definitive English edition of Jung's complete works and letters. Memories, Dreams, Reflections , trans. Richard Winston, and Clara Winston. New York : Random House. Jung's autobiography, oriented towards personal transformations and inner discoveries rather than narrative. The Undiscovered Self, trans.

"Matter of Heart" - The Classic Documentary on C.G. Jung (Full)

Jung stresses the importance of exploring the human psyche. Main, Roderick. Jung on Synchronicity and the Paranormal. Roszak, Theodore, Mary E. Gomes, and Allen D. Kanner, eds. Ecopsychology: Restoring the Earth and Healing the Mind. San Francisco : Sierra Club Books. Collection of essays, with introductions by Lester Brown and James Hillman, exploring how the health of the earth affects the minds of human beings. Roszak, Theodore. Kimball, MI: Phanes Press. The historian's latest work on the connection between the human psyche and the planet Earth. Wilson, Edward O.

Prominent biologist argues that love of all life can be expressed by the "conservation ethic. The Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung was a founder of modern depth psychology. Carl Jung was born on July 26, , in Kesswil, the son of a Protestant clergyman.

When he was 4, the family moved to Basel. As he grew older, his keen interest in biology, zoology, paleontology, philosophy, and the history of religion made the choice of a career quite difficult. However, he finally decided on medicine, which he studied at the University of Basel He received his medical degree from the University of Zurich in Later he studied psychology in Paris. In Jung married Emma Rauschenbach, his loyal companion and scientific collaborator until her death in The couple had five children.

Jung began his professional career in as an assistant to Eugen Bleuler at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Zurich. During these years of his internship, Jung, with a few associates, worked out the so-called association experiment. This is a method of testing used to reveal affectively significant groups of ideas in the unconscious region of the psyche. They usually have a disturbing influence, promoting anxieties and unadapted emotions which are not under the control of the person concerned. Jung coined the term "complexes" for their designation.

Carl Jung: Forever Jung

When Jung read Sigmund Freud 's Interpretation of Dreams, he found his own ideas and observations to be essentially confirmed and furthered. He sent his publication Studies in Word Association to Freud, and this was the beginning of their collaboration and friendship, which lasted from to Jung was eager to explore the secrets of the unconscious psyche expressed by dreaming, fantasies, myths, fairy tales, superstition, and occultism.

But Freud had already worked out his theories about the underlying cause of every psychoneurosis and also his doctrine that all the expressions of the unconscious are hidden wish fulfillments. Jung felt more and more that these theories were scientific presumptions which did not do full justice to the rich expressions of unconscious psychic life.

Carl Gustav Jung

For him the unconscious not only is a disturbing factor causing psychic illnesses but also is fundamentally the seed of man's creativeness and the roots of human consciousness. With such ideas Jung came increasingly into conflict with Freud, who regarded Jung's ideas as unscientific. Jung accused Freud of dogmatism; Freud and his followers reproached Jung for mysticism. His break with Freud caused Jung much distress. Thrown back upon himself, he began a deepened self-analysis in order to gain all the integrity and firmness for his own quest into the dark labyrinth of the unconscious psyche.

Carl Gustav Jung

During the years from to Jung published only three important papers: "Two Essays on Analytical Psychology" , and "Psychological Types" The "Two Essays" provided the basic ideas from which his later work sprang. He described his research on psychological typology extro-and introversion, thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition as psychic functions and expressed the idea that it is the "personal equation" which, often unconsciously but in accordance with one's own typology, influences the approach of an individual toward the outer and inner world. Especially in psychology, it is impossible for an observer to be completely objective, because his observation depends on subjective, personal presuppositions.

This insight made Jung suspicious of any dogmatism. Next to his typology, Jung's main contribution was his discovery that man's fantasy life, like the instincts, has a certain structure. There must be imperceptible energetic centers in the unconscious which regulate instinctual behavior and spontaneous imagination. Thus emerge the dominants of the collective unconscious, or the archetypes. Spontaneous dreams exist which show an astonishing resemblance to ancient mythological or fairy-tale motifs that are usually unknown to the dreamer. To Jung this meant that archetypal manifestations belong to man in all ages; they are the expression of man's basic psychic nature.

Modern civilized man has built a rational superstructure and repressed his dependence on his archetypal nature—hence the feeling of self-estrangement, which is the cause of many neurotic sufferings. In order to study archetypal patterns and processes, Jung visited so-called primitive tribes. He later visited Egypt and India.

To Jung, the religious symbols and phenomenology of Buddhism and Hinduism and the teachings of Zen Buddhism and Confucianism all expressed differentiated experiences on the way to man's inner world, a world which was badly neglected by Western civilization. Jung also searched for traditions in Western culture which compensated for its one-sided extroverted development toward rationalism and technology. He found these traditions in Gnosticism, Christian mysticism, and, above all, alchemy. For Jung, the weird alchemical texts were astonishing symbolic expressions for the human experience of the processes in the unconscious.

Some of his major works are deep and lucid psychological interpretations of alchemical writings, showing their living significance for understanding dreams and the hidden motifs of neurotic and mental disorders. Of prime importance to Jung was the biography of the stages of inner development and of the maturation of the personality, which he termed the "process of individuation. This achievement is a lifelong task of trial and error and of confronting and integrating contents of the unconscious.

It consists in an ever-increasing self-knowledge and in "becoming what you are. Jung lived for his explorations, his writings, and his psychological practice, which he had to give up in due to a severe heart attack. His academic appointments during the course of his career included the professorship of medical psychology at the University of Basel and the titular professorship of philosophy from until on the faculty of philosophical and political sciences of the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.

In he founded the C.

Topology and Archetypes

Jung Institute in Zurich. Honorary doctorates were conferred on him by many important universities all over the world. Jung's writings are being assembled in the volume Collected Works —. Evans, Conversations with Carl Jung ; E. Swiss psychologist who made the study of various occult ideas valid within the framework of psychology. Jung was born on July 26, , at Kesswil, Thurgau, Switzerland. He studied medicine at the University of Basel , Switzerland, and completed his M. While still a student he became fascinated with the occult, on which he read a number of books.

Jung's first publication was an essay on the psychology and pathology of occult phenomena. He became a leading student of Freud and in served as president of the International Psychoanalytic Society. In , however, he went his own way as a result of what he regarded as Freud's overemphasis on sexual theories and opposition to occult ideas.

Jung's break with Freudian theory was marked by his paper "Symbols of the Libido," written in He resigned from the university that year, and for the next twenty years engaged in private practice, which allowed him to develop the approach he termed "analytic psychology. Jung saw individual personality as determined by the balance or imbalance of these polarities. Jung developed a view of the individual as consisting of a set of personality aspects he termed the ego self-awareness , the persona the expected social role played by each person , the shadow a dark side , the animus in a female or anima in a male the unconscious attitude toward the opposite sex , the self soul or spirit , and the unconscious.

He believed the development of a healthy personality, a process called "individuation," occurs as the various opposites in the personality are differentiated and then balanced. Out of this basic understanding of the self several concepts of particular relevance to the modern occult community emerged. For example, Jung saw the unconscious as consisting of two layers — the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious.

The collective unconscious, he said, is a deposit of archetypes or fundamental modes of apprehension that are common to all humanity because of the universality of certain underlying experiences. Archetypes manifest themselves in ancient and not so ancient myths, dreams, symbols, and artistic productions.

One important appearance of archetypes is in the god forms of the ancient polytheistic religions. Thus one can speak of the archetype of the sky god or the mother goddess. Also from his concept of archetype, Jung speculated on the nature of flying saucers, about which he wrote a short book. He also introduced the concept of synchronicity, the connecting principle between events, as distinct from conventional cause and effect, an important idea in modern astrology, which has attempted to break out of its deterministic mode of conceptualizing the relationship between humans and the zodiac.

He spent his last years as a consultant and lecturer at the C. Jung Institute His many writings wore compiled in Collected Works Jung's perception covered every major area of human experience. His occult experiences are indicated in his book VII Sermones ad Mortuoso, published anonymously, which dramatizes Jung's journey into the unconscious.

Some of his reminiscences are recorded in Memories, Dreams, Reflections Charet, F. Spiritualism and the Foundations of C. Jung's Psychology. Franz, Marie-Louise von. Toronto : Inner City Books, Merkur, Daniel. Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York : Helix Press, Psychiatrist, founder of the school of analytical psychology; b. Kesswyl, Switzerland, July 26, ; d.

Zurich, Switzerland, June 6, After receiving his medical degree from the University of Basel, he obtained training in psychiatry from individuals such as Pierre Janet , Eugen Bleuler , and Sigmund Freud.